The Nakajima aircraft plant at Ota, Gunma Prefecture, Japan was seriously damaged by American bombing. This gap was thrown into focus by other maps stashed away in the U.S. National archives. They used black to indicate the most flammable areas, which happened to correspond to the most densely populated and working-class neighborhoods of Tokyo, Fedman explained. Thanks in advance for your time. On August 6, 1945, at 8.15 am, the Enola Gay, an American B-29 bomber plane, dropped a 16-kiloton atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Tokyo, being the Japanese capital, received a greater share of attention from American bombers. This map was produced by geographers in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the US intelligence agency formed during the war that would become the CIA. American B-29 bombers based in China conducted a raid on Japan. Meanwhile, 94 Iwo Jima-based US P-51 fighters strafed airfields at Kamezaki, Meiji, Okazaki, Nagoya, Kagamigahara, Hamamatsu, and Komaki; 3 fighters were lost. Sign in to view your account details and order history. The extent of devastation inflicted upon Japan by the American military during World War II is not broadly known, even today. A number of military units were located nearby, the most important of which was the headquarters of Field Marshal Shunroku Hata’s Second General Army, which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan, and was located in Hiroshima Castle. Just weeks before the US dropped the most powerful weapon mankind has ever known, Nagasaki was not even on a list of target cities for the atomic bomb. But while Fedman is a historian, Karacas is a geographer. Between 1932 and 1945, Japan had bombed Shanghai, Nanjing, Chongqing and other cities, testing chemical weapons in Ningbo and throughout Zhejiang province. 20 Jul: A B-29 bomber failed to attack the Imperial Palace with a large "Pumpkin bomb". US Army B-25 bombers based on Okinawa, Japan attacked Takanabe, Kyushu, Japan, damaging or destroying warehouses, factories, railways, and a rail marshaling yard. Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department estimated 124,711 casualties and 286,358 destroyed buildings and homes. More than 530 American B-29 bombers attacked various cities in Japan with incendiary bombs. On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed three days later by another on Nagasaki. Evidently it had little military value and much cultural significance. 470 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Nagoya, Japan. "They lowered their bombing altitude and loaded their B-29s with incendiary bombs, which they released with the hope the fire would grow and spread," he said. ww2dbaseThe attack on these major cities caused as many as 500,000 Japanese deaths, while displacing as many as 5,000,000. ww2dbaseSources: The Pacific Campaign, Wikipedia. While the United States began conventional bombing of Japan as early as 1942, the mission did not begin in earnest until mid-1944. The Duquesne spy ring included 30 men and three women operating under the direction of Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne, a flamboyant South African adventurer and soldier who had also spied for the Germans during World War I. 458 American B-29 bombers attacked Osaka harbor, Japan in poor weather. "In the 21st century, a historical perspective on geographical issues is more important than ever.". The main targets were Dejima Wharf, Ohato Pier, and the rail station complex. 26 Apr: 464 B-29 bombers attacked Tokyo urban areas south of the Imperial Palace. "They did a lot of research into the nature of Japanese urban spaces so they could understand how to best burn them to the ground," Fedman said. At two minutes past 11 o’clock in the morning on August 9, 1945, an atomic bomb exploded over the Japanese city of Nagasaki. The Quebec agreement allowed for the deployment of two atomic bom… We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. "In this article, we made a concerted effort to be as dispassionate as possible and to let the evidence and the maps speak for themselves," he said. Dresden is Germany’s seventh biggest city … Sitemap. The Nagasaki Prefectural Government in Japan ordered all national elementary schools in the prefecture's five cities to move classes to sites such as shrines, private homes, and the likes as a safety measure to protect children against US bombing. In Japan, 100 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo, while 15 B-29 bombers mined waters off Kure and Hiroshima. The estimated total number of civilian casualties was over 100,000, and the city was left utterly destroyed. In the biggest air raid yet over Japan, 820 Superfortress bombers dropped 6,632 tons of high explosive bombs and incendiary bombs on four cities, bringing the total number of Japanese cities incinerated to 56. Although World War II had ended in Europe, it was still continuing in the Pacific theater. Beyond that, Fedman thinks it reveals still another transformation when compared with earlier maps, which appear "precise and professional. 473 American B-29 bombers destroyed 11 square kilometers of urban areas at Kobe, Japan. I In the early months of 1945, the United States shifted its attention to the Pacific as it gained the capacity to attack Japan from newly captured bases in Tinian and Guam. So he sought out a leading expert on the Japan air raids: geographer Cary Karacas, a professor in the Department of Political Science, Economics, and Philosophy at The City University of New York in Staten Island. Burma Railway construction Japanese soldiers move through the destroyed railway station. The US attack also heavily damaged submarine I-15, which was under-construction at Kobe, nearly completed. 28 Jun: 29 B-29 bombers laid naval mines in three harbors including Kobe. At the beginning of World War II, bombing of cities prior to invasion was an integral part of Nazi Germany's strategy.In the first stages of war, the Germans carried out many bombings of towns and cities in Poland (1939), including the capital Warsaw (also bombed in 1944), with Wieluń being the first city destroyed by 75%. The essay traces the history, production and uses of maps created by the US government during World War II as part of the programs of aerial bombing in Japan. The Americans would drop 16,000 tons of napalm and oil bombs during the campaign; vast areas were burned out but 77 B-29 bombers failed to return. They show how maps — along with the men who made and used them — played a central role in the aerial campaign. David Fedman was doing research at Stanford University's Branner Library when he stumbled across some maps that left him confounded. American B-25 bombers from Okinawa conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan, while 454 B-29 bombers (escorted by 101 P-51 fighters) firebombed Yokohama, Japan. 119 American B-29 bombers attacked the port and urban areas of Tokyo, Japan. 'A cartographic fade to black: mapping the destruction of urban Japan during World War II, by David Fedman and Cary Karacas, was awarded the 2012 Best Paper Prize by the Journal of Historical Geography. The first bomb, dropped on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, resulted in a total death toll of around 140,000. An international quarterly, the Journal of Historical Geography publishes articles on all aspects of historical geography and related fields, including environmental history. "I wanted to know more," he said. DRESDEN (OCTOBER 1944-APRIL 1945) – 25,000 deaths. After sundown, US 20th Air Force launched 27 B-29 Superfortress bombers to mine waters off Japan and Korea, 127 B-29 bombers to attack Fukui, 126 B-29 bombers to attack Hitachi, 91 B-29 bombers to attack Choshi, 126 B-29 bombers to attack Okazaki, and 83 B-29 bombers to attack the Nippon oil plant at Amagasaki; only 3 B-29 bombers were lost by the US 20th Air Force during this night. 274 US aircraft bombed and destroyed 8.1 square miles of Osaka, Japan. Second, it is to showcase American B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima factory outside Tokyo, Japan. B-29 bombers of the US Army Far East Air Force aircraft attacked Kyushu, Japan from their bases in the Philippine Islands. "Americans tend to focus on the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; as a result of that we have forgotten largely in the public realm the fact that a total of 66 Japanese cities were targeted and destroyed during World War II." One such map was of Tokyo in early July, 1945. 13 Apr: More than 300 B-29 bombers attacked military targets in and near Tokyo. We're drawing from research produced by both disciplines and, I think, weaving together a lot of different strands of scholarship. "The idea was to surgically take out only those targets. Americans estimated 88,000 killed, 41,000 injured, and 1,000,000 displaced. Fedman emailed him scans of the target charts, and Dr. Karacas quickly wrote back that he, too, was intrigued. The World War II Database is founded and managed by Between April 1944 and August, 1945, an estimated 333,000 Japanese people were killed and 473,000 more wounded in air raids. 8 Aug: About 60 B-29 bombers attacked aircraft factories and arsenals near Tokyo. More than 500 American B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs on a number of cities on Honshu, Japan. The railroad tracks between Urakami and Nagayo were also damaged. US 11th Air Force launched 8 B-24 bombers against Matsuwa Airfield, Matsuwa, Hokkaido, Japan in the Kurile Islands. Please refrain from using strong language. P-47 Thunderbolt and P-51 Mustang aircraft of US Far East Air Forces attacked various targets on Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, focusing largely on communications lines, bridges, shipping, and population centers. and useful information about WW2. HTML tags are not allowed. Operation Meetinghouse: After sundown and into the early hours of 10 Mar, 279 American B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs on Tokyo, Japan and destroyed 267,000 buildings and homes or 41 square kilometers of the city. "We want our paper to stimulate a broader discussion of a topic we think not a lot people know or think about. In total, an estimated 500,000 or more Japanese … 18 Jun: 25 B-29 bombers laid naval mines in several areas including waters near Kobe. Excellent insights into the bombing campaign over Japan and the shift from precision bombing to area bombing. It shows how the Air Force turned its attention to smaller areas after destroying the larger cities with more military and industrial significance. in Chongqing). She joined Elsevier in 2007 from the world of journalism, where she was a business reporter and blogger for The Journal News, a Gannett daily newspaper in New York. 101 American B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo, Japan; this was the first B-29 mission to be escorted by P-51 fighters from Iwo Jima. 159 American B-29 bombers attacked the urban areas of Tokyo, Japan. On March 10, 1945, 16 square miles (41 square kilometers) of Tokyo were obliterated in the fires started by incendiary bombs. 4 Mar: 159 B-29 bombers attacked Tokyo urban areas. In its place was Japan's … "What's really intriguing … is how you get from the precise dots of the target maps to these huge swaths of destruction that encompassed whole cities. Japanese fighters shot down 5 bombers, while 4 others received damage and had to ditch or crash land. The two Japanese cities that were struck by atomic bombs in World War 2 were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The events of August 6 and August 9 were the first instances of atomic bombs used against humans, killing tens of thousands of people, obliterating the cities, and contributing to the end of World War II. The nature of total warfare that these maps reveal often leads people to ask whether all this destruction was necessary or ethical. At that moment, Kazumi Yamada, a … ", As Fedman soon discovered, however, "there was a striking gap between the rhetoric and the reality of these bombings.". In addition to standard bombs, incendiary bombs were used with devastating effect against individual residences. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in armed conflict. Bourne's dilemma'. DRESDEN (OCTOBER 1944-APRIL 1945) – 25,000 deaths. 10 Aug: 70 B-29 bombers attacked the arsenal complex near Tokyo. During the first years of the Pacific War these attacks were limited to the Doolittle Raid in April 1942 and small-scale raids on military positions in the Kuril Islands from mid-1943. The black mass represents the parts of Tokyo that had been burned to the ground. ", The editorial board of the journal agreed when they selected this for the 2012 Journal of Historical Geography Best Paper Prize Prize. In the previous century, she was a classical guitarist on the music faculty of Syracuse University. 24 May: 520 B-29 bombers attacked urban and industrial areas south of the Imperial Palace. The Hiro Naval Arsenal in Kure, Japan was destroyed by US B-29 Superfortress bombers. 57 American B-29 bombers attacked Nagoya, Japan, while 21 other bombers attacked other Japanese cities. A century ago, the airplane and high-altitude photography dramatically changed the way landscapes were seen and understood, Copyright © 2020 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties, Cookies are used by this site. Over 60 cities in Japan were subjected to bombings, many repeatedly. Themes  include: Read more on the journal home page, and visit the Geography, Planning and Development portal to access articles online. 29 B-24 bombers of US 7th Air Force attacked Nagasaki, Japan in the morning, sinking ferry Kinko Maru, damaging the Kawanami Shipyard at Koyagishima, destroying 72 homes, and damaging 76 homes. 11 May: 92 B-29 bombers attacked the Kawanishi aircraft factories. Many buildings on the grounds of the Imperial Palace complex were destroyed. From January 1944 to August 1945, the U.S. dropped 157,000 tons of bombs on Japanese cities, according to the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey. The shortlisted papers were also based on high-quality research in very different contexts: the rise and fall of a department store in London's west end, and the politics of cotton cultivation and climate change in colonial India: Read the press release about the winners here. In total, 169 people were killed, 215 people were wounded, 40 people were missing, 107 homes were destroyed, and 134 homes were damaged. A Japanese aircraft made the first aerial ramming attempt at an American bomber. Night of 24-25 Feb: 174 B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs and destroyed about 3 square kilometer of the city, or about 28,000 buildings. "The standard of submissions for this newly-established Prize was remarkably high," said Editor-in-Chief Felix Driver, Professor of Human Geography at Royal Holloway, University of London. Cookie Notice 7 Apr: 101 B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory. 2 Apr: More than 100 B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory. 472 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Nagoya, Japan as part of the first of two days of saturation bombing on Japanese cities. ", "Americans tend to focus on the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; as a result of that we have forgotten largely in the public realm the fact that a total of 66 Japanese cities were targeted and destroyed during World War II. The Empire of Japan entered World War II in September 27, 1940, by signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, though, it wasn't until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, that the US entered the conflict. A target chart dated July 1942 has concentric circles over the coastal city of Osaka, with small dots marking targets sprinkled throughout the map. 2. 9 homes were destroyed, about 50 homes were damaged, 13 people were killed, and 26 people were seriously injured. 26 aircraft were lost, which was the highest one-day loss. The XX Air Force immediately took on the task of bombing Japanese naval and air bases from high altitude, though most of the early attacks achieved relatively little. "But it was a later map the researchers found even more striking. In Japan, the US air war reached peak intensity with area bombing and climaxed with the atomic bombing of Japanese cities between the night of March 9-10 and Japan’s August 15, 1945 surrender. They were produced by the US Army Air Forces during World War II. But the atomic bombing of Hiroshima occurred just five days later, and Toyama's tragic story was all but lost in the closing days of World War … For details on the atomic bombing, please see the article dedicated to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. "It's no accident that this essay is published in the Journal of Historical Geography," Fedman said. 11 people were killed and 35 people were wounded. The goal of this About 30 people were killed or wounded aboard municipal ferries Tsuru Maru and Mizunoura Maru at Ohato Pier, while the bomb that fell near Platform No. One US B-29 Superfortress bomber attacked Nagasaki, Japan at 1100 hours, having arrived undetected. Dresden is Germany’s seventh biggest city … The Americans would drop 16,000 tons of napalm and oil bombs during the campaign; vast areas were burned out but 77 B-29 bombers failed to return. Drawing from a wide range of documentary sources in US archives, the authors argue that maps provide an important and long-neglected means to trace the history of the incendiary bombing of Japan's cities. 68 American B-29 bombers attacked the Koizuimi aircraft factory and the urban areas of Tokyo, Japan. Target committee members believed an atom bomb could destroy the infrastructure of Japan without the need for an invasion, so the cities of Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, Kokura, Niigata, and … 19 Jul: 27 B-29 bombers laid naval mines in several areas including waters near Kobe. Frustrated with the results of precision bombing, the US Air Forces turned to a technique that was pioneered by the Allies, especially the British Royal Air Force, over the skies of Germany. The attack also destroyed a 20-meter stretch of street car tracks, damaged the Nagasaki Teachers Training School, destroyed 43 homes, and damaged 113 homes. 464 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan. Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities Interactive Map, Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities Timeline. The first B-29 bombing raid against Tokyo, Japan from Tinian in the Mariana Islands took place; 88 American aircraft participated in this mission. The blackened maps would inspire the title of the paper they collaborated on: 'A cartographic fade to black: mapping the destruction of urban Japan during World War II. The bomb that fell on Dejima Wharf failed to explode. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'ww2db_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',114,'0','0'])); ww2dbaseBombing of Kobe. "It's meant to convey, quite crudely, only the destruction of this city – and the absolute dominance of the Army Air Forces by the end of firebombing campaign. At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of both industrial and military significance. Privacy Policy The Americans launched the first of several 1,000-bomber raids against the Japanese home islands. Consumer culture, property speculation and department store demise: the rise and fall of Bourne and Hollingsworth on London's Oxford Street, Cotton, climate and colonialism in Dharwar, western India, 1840–1880, Geography, Planning and Development portal, How aerial photography altered the way we perceive environmental change, The geographies of places and environments in the past, The dynamics of place, space and landscape, Historiography and philosophy of historical geography, Methodological challenges and problems in historical geography. The most sophisticated German espionage operation in the United States was established—and busted—before America even entered the war. In Jan 1945, American General Curtis LeMay took over the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands, merging them into the XX Air Force. This technique makes use of small incendiary bombs (possibly delivered by a cluster bomb such as the Molotov bread basket [1] ). ww2dbaseThis article covers the conventional bombing of Japanese cities. ww2dbaseYutaka Akabane, a senior level civil servant, observed that. Did you enjoy this article or find this article helpful? For years debate has raged over whether the US was right to drop two atomic bombs on Japan during the final weeks of the Second World War. 6 American B-24 bombers attacked Japanese shipping between Paramushiru Island and Shimushu Island in the Kurile Islands and the Kataoka Airfield on Paramushiru; this was the first heavy bomber attack against Japan. Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department estimated 124,711 casualties and 286,358 destroyed buildings and homes. Note: We hope that visitor conversations at WW2DB will be constructive and thought-provoking. 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